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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2020| July  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 25, 2021

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Aphrodisiac Potentials of Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille Methanol Root Extract in Male Wistar Rats
Adekunle Orimisan Ojatula, MacDonald Idu, Odaro Timothy
July 2020, 7(2):47-55
Background and Objectives: Pausinystalia yohimbe is an evergreen (tree) medicinal plant that is being used across the globe in ethnomedicine to enhance libido in male. Therefore, this study is to investigate the in vitro aphrodisiac potential and acute toxicological effect of P. yohimbe roots in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups of nine rats each. Rats in Group 1 (control) were administered 1 mL/kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), Group 2 received 5 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in Groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of methanol extract of P. yohimbe root in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 1, 7, and 14 by pairing with receptive females. Computed male sexual behavioral parameters, male serum testosterone concentrations, and acute toxicological assay of the plant were also determined. Results: Oral administration of P. yohimbe root extract at the doses evaluated, except the lowest dosed group on day 1, significantly increased mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies (P < 0.05). The latencies of mount and intromission were significantly decreased and ejaculation latency was prolonged. Administration of the extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval significantly. The standard drug (sildenafil citrate) was not effective than the extract. The extract significantly increased the computed male sexual behavioral parameters as well as serum testosterone concentrations, compared with the distilled water control. The toxicity studies showed that there were no acute behavioral changes with zero mortality. Conclusions: The result of this study demonstrates that methanol extract of P. yohimbe root enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the increased blood testosterone concentrations caused by the action of bioactive compounds present in the extract, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. Data from this study thus support the folk use of the plant material as an aphrodisiac in males.
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Future risks of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease in infants with postnatally-repaired posterior urethral valve: A systematic review
Samuel Nkachukwu Uwaezuoke, Uzoamaka Vivian Muoneke, Ngozi Rita Mbanefo
July 2020, 7(2):23-33
Background and Objectives: Several studies show that most infants with posterior urethral valve (PUV) do not fully recover their renal function, despite postnatal interventions to obviate the consequences of lower urinary tract obstruction. This systematic review assesses the future risks of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in infants with postnatally-repaired PUV. Methods: We electronically searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases for articles published between 2000 and 2020 (Date of the last search: September 12, 2020) using appropriate descriptors. We selected the studies based on adopted eligibility and exclusion criteria. We independently retrieved relevant data from the selected studies using a preconceived data-extraction form. We analyzed the aggregate data among the selected studies that signified future CKD and ESKD after the postnatal intervention and computed their mean prevalence rates. We also calculated the average point estimate of CKD and ESKD relative risks (RR) as the effect estimate at a 95% confidence interval. Results: Eleven studies were selected and reviewed, in which a total of 1362 patients were managed and followed up for variable periods. The aggregate data on ESKD prevalence from seven studies showed that a total of 112 patients developed ESKD out of a total patient-population of 446, giving a calculated mean ESKD prevalence of 24%. The CKD prevalence data in nine studies showed that 210 patients had CKD, out of 741 patients that were followed up, with a calculated mean CKD prevalence of 28%. The pooled RR of ESKD in seven studies and RR of CKD in nine studies was 0.5 (−0.48, 1.48) and 0.57 (−0.41, 1.55), respectively. Conclusions: Future risks of CKD and ESKD are still high in patients with postnatally-repaired PUV. We advocate a management approach that involves a synergy between pediatric nephrologists and urologists to ensure prompt renoprotective strategies and timely surgical intervention.
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What is the serum creatinine level cutoff for starting of complications in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
Majid Malaki
July 2020, 7(2):56-57
  - 4,700 384
Isoniazid/rifampicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Protective Potential of selenium
Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Possible Jumbo
July 2020, 7(2):34-40
Background and Objectives: Nephrotoxicity has characterized the use of isoniazid–rifampicin (INH-RIF). Selenium (Se) has potential to protect tissues from damage. This study evaluated the protective activity of Se against INH-RIF-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: Forty-five adult male albino rats (200-230 g) randomized into nine groups of n = 5 were used. Group A (placebo control) and Group B (solvent control) were treated with normal saline (0.2 mL/day/per oral [p.o]) and corn oil (0.2 mL/day/p.o) for 21 days, respectively. Groups C–E were treated with Se (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg/day/p.o, respectively) for 21 days. Group F was treated with INH-RIF (50/100 mg/kg/day/p.o) for 21 days. Groups G–I were supplemented with Se (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg/day/p.o, respectively) before treatment with INH/RIF (50/100 mg/kg/day/p.o) for 21 days. After treatment, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected and evaluated for serum renal function markers (creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein, and albumin). Kidneys were assessed for histology, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Results: Body weight was decreased whereas kidney weight was increased significantly (P < 0.01) in INH-RIF-treated rats when compared to control. INH-RIF caused significant (P < 0.001) increases in serum renal function markers and kidney MDA level when compared to control. INH-RIF caused significant (P < 0.001) decreases in kidney antioxidants when compared to control. Kidneys of INH-RIF-treated rats showed tubular necroses and widened Bowman's space. INH-RIF-induced nephrotoxicity was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent fashion in rats supplemented with Se (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg) at P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively, when compared to INH-RIF. Se may clinically protect against INH-RIF-induced nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: This study showed that Se may clinically prevent INH-RIF-related nephrotoxicity.
  - 6,848 2,425
Hemodynamic assessment and study of bleeding complications following percutaneous renal biopsy in a tertiary care hospital
Maniyar Iqbal Anvar, Bellara Raghavendra
July 2020, 7(2):41-46
Background: Percutaneous kidney biopsy is the primary diagnostic tool used in kidney diseases. In general, it is a low-risk procedure in a majority of the patients, however, complications do occur and the most common complications are pain abdomen and bleeding which may be microscopic or macroscopic hematuria or perirenal hematoma. We aim to assess all the biopsies performed by following the patients postprocedure. Materials and Methods: All patients were evaluated before renal biopsy with prebiopsy investigations like Hemoglobin percentage, platelet count, and other test for coagulation. Following which patients underwent ultrasound guided renal biopsy. post renal biopsy they were followed clinically for pulse rate , blood pressure and laboratory monitoring by repeat hemoglobin levels, and by ultrasound scan for any hematoma and visible hematuria. The results were compared to prebiopsy values and tabulated and difference in values were assessed. Results: We enrolled 88 patients in our study done over 3 years; out of 88 patients enrolled, we found that 58% of the patients were male and 42% were female; following biopsy, pain abdomen was the most common symptom reported in 50% of the patients, followed by hematuria in 33% of the patients. Out of 88 patients, 57 patients (64%) had a decrease in Hb from their prebiopsy levels, but the range was 0.1g/dl-3.4g/dl drop with a mean value of 0.932 ± 0.819 g%. Seventeen patients (19.3%) developed hematoma on day 1 following biopsy with a size ranging from 1 cc to 25 cc hematoma with a mean size of 3 cc, which decreased in size on follow-up scans to 3 (3.4%) patients on day 3 having persistent hematoma with a Median size of 4cc on day 3. The odds ratio (O.R) for developing hematoma following kidney biopsy was assessed in different groups. It was found that those patients who had their baseline serum creatinine >3mg/dl had O R of 1.66 95% C.I, [0.53-5.07]. And those patients whose systolic blood pressure was >160 mm of Hg had an Odds Ratio of developing hematoma of O.R 2.77 95% C.I [0.43-11.08]. Conclusion: Renal biopsy is a relatively safe procedure with some morbidity and occasional mortality if performed by screening of patients thoroughly for bleeding parameters, and patients may require monitoring postprocedure by repeated ultrasound scans if needed. Moreover, bleeding in many patients is clinically insignificant rarely requiring any transfusion postprocedure. Moreover, patients with high prebiopsy creatinine have some risk of bleeding than other patients with normal kidney function.
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