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   2020| January-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since August 24, 2021

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Urinary tract infection in nephrotic children: A cross-sectional study
Sabyasachi Bakshi, Subhendu Samanta
January-June 2020, 7(1):12-16
Background and Objectives: Nephrotic syndrome, characterized by the presence of heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia, is a common renal disorder in pediatric population. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in nephrotic syndrome, bacterial etiologies, and antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Subjects and Methods: After matching the criteria, 82 cases were taken for this prospective, single-center, observational study. The diagnosis was confirmed by bacterial culture. This is an institution-based, cross-sectional, descriptive observational study. All newly diagnosed and relapse cases of nephrotic syndrome based on the inclusion exclusion criteria were included in the study. Respondent was either of the parents or caregiver of the study subjects. Analysis of all data was done by appropriate statistical software (SPSS-23). Results: Among 82 participants evaluated with nephrotic syndrome, 29.3% of participants had UTI, majority (66.7%) were asymptomatic, and 33.3% were symptomatic. Significant microscopic hematuria was found in 20.7% of study subjects and significant pyuria was found in 58.54%. Majority (33.3%) of UTIs were caused by Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella 25%, Proteus 16.7%, and Staphylococcus aureus 12.5%, and Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, and mixed growth were found in 4.2% each. The mean serum cholesterol of group with UTI was 422.13 ± 34.65 and group without UTI was 307.43 ± 26.13. The variation among the two groups was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: The children with nephrotic syndrome are frequently predisposed to UTI, and in most cases, it is asymptomatic and often undiagnosed. Higher serum cholesterol level may predispose the nephrotic child for UTI.
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Effects of pomegranate peel extract on the reproductive tract complications of sodium selenite in immature male rats
Fatemeh Namazi, Mahboobeh Ashrafi, Asghar Mogheiseh, Esmaeil Bandariyan, Arash Rakhshi-Asl, Forough Zarei-Kordshouli
January-June 2020, 7(1):6-11
Background: Oxidative stress is one of the main causes of cataract and can be induced by selenite administration in rats. In experimentally induced cataract, sodium selenite may affect the reproductive system in young animals because of induction of oxidation condition. Methods: Sixty-four male 8-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control; pomegranate peel extract (PPE) 500 mg/kg; sodium selenite 30 μmol/kg; PPE and sodium selenite simultaneously on day 8; and PPE on day 6 and sodium selenite on day 8. A histopathological study was performed after 4 weeks. Results: Cataract was induced in all treated rats with selenite sodium. The volume and weight of the right and left testicles, the weight of the right and left epididymis, and the weight of the Cowper's gland, seminal vesicles, and prostate were significantly different between the sodium selenite group and other groups. On the other hand, the histopathological examination revealed tissue damage, interstitial edema, and the degeneration of spermatogenic cells in seminiferous tubules in the group which had received sodium selenite. There was a significant difference in all of the morphometric parameters of the genital system in rats, except the weight of the prostate between the PPE group and PPE and sodium selenite simultaneously group. Conclusion: The consumption of PPE improves the testis pathology indices in immature male rats with cataract induced by sodium selenite.
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Current clinical situation of hemodialysis patients in nephrology center, Benghazi-Libya
Khaled D Alsaeiti, Sabah M Albarasi, Mohamed A Hamedh, Marwa M Alagoory, Yosser S Isawi, Muftah S Elsaeiti
January-June 2020, 7(1):1-5
Introduction: Dialysis adequacy is an important and effective factor on decrease of mortality and morbidity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to assess the current clinical situation of hemodialysis patients, monitoring of established quality-of-care indicators, and to identify the indicators that were not achieved. Patients and Methods: An observational study in which all patients underwent chronic hemodialysis program (more than 1 year) at the nephrology centers (center of nephrology services - Hawary and Allethy dialysis center), it was conducted between January and June 2018. Mean levels were collected for the following indicators: anemia, dialysis dose, serum calcium and phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, intradialytic hypotension and vascular access. Results: 292 dialysis patients were reviewed and followed over 6 months period, 170 (58.2%) were male and 122 (41.2%) were females. Age average was 51.1 ± 14 Hypertension (HTN) was the most common cause of ESRD in 76 patients (26.0%) followed by diabetes mellitus in 32 patients (11.0%), Our patients failed to achieve adequate H. D. as laboratory values results show Hb. Level <10 g/dl. In 61% of patients, S. Ca + 2 was <8.4 mg/dl in 48.6%, S. PhO4 was more than 5.5 mg/dl in 50%, and S. PTH was more than 300 ng/dl in 60.3%. Conclusion: With regard to the dialysis insufficiency in significant percent of patients in this study, more extensive researches for finding the causes of low dialysis quality is suggested.
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Incidental leydig cell tumor in a detorted testis
Ajay S Kanbur, Swara Talawdekar, Kunal Taware, Supriya Dutta
January-June 2020, 7(1):17-19
Leydig cell tumors form 1%-3% of all testicular tumors. We report a case of incidental Leydig cell tumor in a case of detorted testis.
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To study the prevalence of thyroid disorders in chronic renal disease patients
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
January-June 2020, 7(1):20-20
  4,010 363 -
Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma: An entity not to be forgotten
Kriti Chauhan, Rujuta Shah
January-June 2020, 7(1):21-22
  3,666 383 -