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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| October-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 29, 2017

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Prevalence of infective organisms of infections of urinary tract in a sample of Arab infants and children
Mohamed Abdelaziz El-Gamasy
October-December 2017, 4(4):136-140
Background: Infections of urinary tract were considered as the most common hospital-acquired infections in hospitalized patients. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to assess the prevalence of causative organisms of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their responsiveness to different available antimicrobials in a sample of Arab children, which may help the clinician to choose the correct empirical treatment. We aimed to study the type of urinary pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with first-episode UTI in our locality and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods: Urine samples were collected from 320 clinically suspected cases of UTI from inpatient wards and outpatient clinic of Pediatric Department of Tanta University Hospital during the period from June 2016 to June 2017. The samples were tested microbiologically by standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested for commonly used antibiotics by disc diffusion method according to hospital policy. Results: Significant bacteriuria was present in 75% of the samples, 16.25% were sterile, and 8.75% showed insignificant bacteriuria. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (55%), Klebsiella spp. (26.6%), and Proteus mirabilis (14.2%). The mean susceptibility was high for amikacin (85%), ceftriaxone (82%), cefotaxime (80%), nitrofurantoin (80%), and nalidixic acid (78%) but low for ampicillin (21%), cephalexin (30%), and sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (37%). Conclusions: The antibiotics which are commonely used in UTIs such as trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole,ampicillin and cephalexin are not appropriate for embrical treatment of common UTIs.This may be attributed to high rate of bacterial resistance .Regular monitering of these patients is recommended to establish reliable information about patterns of urinary pathogens aiming optimal embrical therapy for children with UTI.
  3 2,440 217
Congenital anorchia: A report of two cases and a brief review of the literature
Swayamsidha Mangaraj, Arun Kumar Choudhury, Binoy Kumar Mohanty, Anoj Kumar Baliarsinha
October-December 2017, 4(4):141-143
Congenital anorchia represents a rare form of testicular disorder. It classically refers to the absence of unilateral or bilateral testes in an otherwise normal genetic male. It is usually diagnosed in infancy due to the absence of testes with or without evidence of micropenis during routine health screening of the child. However, it can be identified at late stages while the person is being evaluated for delayed puberty and primary hypogonadism. Early identification and differentiation from cryptorchidism are essential from a therapeutic point of view. Apart from imaging studies, hormonal evaluation plays a crucial role in establishing the diagnosis.
  - 8,148 378
Pelvic splenosis presented as pelvis mass and gross hematuria
James Jing, Run Wang
October-December 2017, 4(4):144-146
Pevlic splenosis is a very rare condition, particularly when the condition is diagnosed during a hematuria workup. Hematuria can be caused by genitourinary system infection, urolithiasis, neoplasm, or trauma. Hematuria can be seen in patients with symptoms or without symptoms. The standard work-up for hematuria includes a computed tomography (CT) scan which can sometimes have incident findings that can make diagnosis difficult. We report a rare case of a 44-year-old patient with painless gross hematuria and the CT scan revealed a pelvic mass that was eventually confirmed to be a pelvic splenosis by a nuclear liver–spleen sulfur colloid scan.
  - 2,009 193
Renal dysfunction after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: Are the current guidelines too relaxed and deliberately extrapolated?
Sandeep Kumar Kar
October-December 2017, 4(4):113-114
  - 3,112 1,228
Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as prognostic biomarker for idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in Egyptian children
Mohamed Abd Elaziz El-Gamasy, Maher Ahmed Abdelhafez, Mohammed M Barr, Mostafa Mansour Mehrez, Mohammed A Nassar, Mohsen M Eldeeb, Mohamed Abdelmageed
October-December 2017, 4(4):121-129
Background and Objectives: It is important to distinguish steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) from steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) to avoid initial full dose steroid therapy in the latter. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) even on top of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim is to determine urinary NGAL level in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) as a prognostic factor for INS, it can predict steroid resistance early in the course of INS. Subjects and Methods: The present study was carried out on ninety children with INS who were admitted in Pediatric Nephrology Unit of Tanta University Hospital. Thirty healthy children of the same age and sex served as control group. The subjects were subdivided into three groups: Group 1 (SSNS), Group 2 (SRNS), and Group 3 (controls). Patients and controls were subjected to clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations which included 24 h urinary collection for urinary volume and protein, complete blood count, serum cholesterol, serum albumin, blood urea, serum creatinine, and urinary NGAL measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: There was a significant increase in uNGAL levels in SRNS when compared with SSNS or controls. There was no significant difference in uNGAL levels between Group 1 and Group 3. ROC curve of uNGAL to predict SRNS had cutoff value >315 at the area under the curve 0.9, sensitivity 86.7%, and specificity 93.3%. There was a significant positive correlation between urinary NGAL level and age of patients and disease duration and serum creatinine level. Conclusions: Urinary NGAL can predict SRNS in INS in children.
  - 2,737 222
Evaluation of von Willebrand Factor-cleaving Proteinase(vWF-CP) in pediatric patients with primary glomerulonephropathy
Hasan Tarek Abd-Allah Ebrahim
October-December 2017, 4(4):130-135
Background and Objectives: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a well-known risk factor for arterial or venous thromboembolism (TE). There is a higher risk of TE in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) than in steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS). The aim of this study was to investigate serum level of von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease activity which is known as vWF-CP in children with idiopathic NS (INS) and its correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 120 children with INS, including 40 SSNS, 40 SRNS, and 40 healthy controls. All subjects are investigated by complete blood count, 24 h collected urine analysis for urine volume, urinary proteins, total serum protein and serum albumin, total serum cholesterol, prothrombin time, partial thromboblastin time (PTT), and serum vWF-CP activity. Results: There was a highly significant decrease in serum vWF-CP activity in SSNS and SRNS groups when compared to control group while there was no significant difference in serum vWF-CP activity between SSNS and SRNS groups. Conclusions: Serum vWF-CP activity is a biomarker for endothelial dysfunction and hypercoagulable state. The decreased vWF-CP activity in different extent of nephrotic patients (SSNS and SRNS) may be one of the pathogenesis of thrombosis as a common complication of NS. Regular follow-up of nephrotic patients and estimation of serum vWF-CP level as its decreased level is a risk factor of thrombosis.
  - 2,220 195
Uromodulin and YKL-40 as biomarkers in pediatric acute kidney injury: A review of current evidence
Samuel Nkachukwu Uwaezuoke
October-December 2017, 4(4):115-120
This review aims to discuss the current evidence about the role of two biomarkers in pediatric acute kidney injury (AKI)-uromodulin (UMOD) and YKL-40 (a glycoprotein whose name is derived from the three N-terminal amino acids present on the secreted form and its molecular size of 40 kDa). Several novel biomarkers have been used in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of AKI. UMOD and YKL-40 or chitinase 3-like protein 1 have recently attracted scientific interest as potential biomarkers in the disease. Although UMOD has long been recognized as a marker of tubular health, it was only in the recent past that its functional role in health and disease began to be understood. The finding of low levels of the biomarker in AKI supports the recent discovery that it plays a protective rather than an instigatory role in the disease. Evidence synthesized from the reviewed studies suggests that urine UMOD levels are negatively correlated with AKI risk. Moreover, increased serum UMOD may also be used as a prognostic biomarker for recovery from AKI. On the other hand, YKL-40 (although a multidisease biomarker) has been shown to play a predictive and prognostic role in AKI, its levels being positively correlated with disease risk. Large prospective studies are however required to confirm these results and to assess the clinical utility of estimating UMOD and YKL-40 levels as well as the therapeutic implications of their altered levels.
  - 2,626 1,146