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   2017| April-June  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 20, 2017

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Urinary tract infection and vesicoureteric reflux
Snehamayee Nayak, Nitin Sharma, Atul Jindal
April-June 2017, 4(2):39-46
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the common causes of hospital visit in infants and children. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) predisposes to UTI and renal scarring. VUR is usually diagnosed after an episode of UTI. VUR is the most common underlying etiology responsible for febrile UTIs or pyelonephritis in children. Along with the morbidity of pyelonephritis, long-term sequelae of recurrent renal infections include renal scarring, proteinuria, and hypertension. Treatment is directed toward the prevention of recurrent infection through the use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis during a period of observation for spontaneous resolution or by surgical correction. In children, bowel and bladder dysfunction (BBD) plays a significant role in the occurrence of UTI and the rate of VUR resolution. Effective treatment of BBD leads to higher rates of spontaneous resolution and decreased risk of UTI.
  9,062 787 1
To find the role of DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy 2-deoxy guanosine in patients of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and its association to other prognostic factors of prostate cancer
Lalit Kumar, Sriniwas Kumar, Sakshi Agarwal
April-June 2017, 4(2):55-59
Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify correlation between DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy 2-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) and other prognostic factors such as Gleason's score, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and stage in carcinoma prostate and to assess a probability-correlation between DNA damage and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and control. Materials and Methods: A study has been carried out prospectively. Forty patients of carcinoma prostate, 34 BPH, and 14 healthy controls were included in the study between the period of July 2010 to July 2012. Serum 8-OHdG level was measured in all subjects as a marker of DNA damage. Results: Serum 8-OHdG level was significantly raised in patient with prostate cancer (313.39 ± 69.48 ng/mL) as compared with BPH patients (204.42 ± 40.97 ng/mL) and control group (198.94 ± 15.74 ng/mL) with P< 0.001. Serum 8-OHdG level in BPH patients was higher than the controls, but the mean difference was statistically insignificant (P = 1.000). The patients with serum PSA >20 ng/mL, Gleason's score >6 had higher mean 8-OHdG levels as compared to serum PSA ≤20 and Gleason score ≤6, as P< 0.05. There was also direct association found between prostate volume and stage of the tumor though it was not significant. Conclusions: These findings suggest that oxidative stress level was significantly raised in prostate cancer patients. It was also observed that a significant direct association exists between oxidative stress and certain clinicopathologic factors, including serum PSA, Gleason score, and metastasis which show that with progression of disease, there was increase in oxidative stress level.
  7,993 592 4
Possible role of sexual abuse in boys with perianal warts
Mohammed Abu El-Hamd, Soha Aboeldahab
April-June 2017, 4(2):51-54
Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the clinical presentations of perianal warts in boys and to evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of perianal warts and the sexual abuse as mode of transmission. Materials and Methods: In a prospective clinical study, it conducted on 16 boys with clinically evident perianal warts at the Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Upper Egypt, between September 2012 and March 2016. A detailed history from the child and his family was taken. All boys underwent full clinical general and local examinations including (1) site, number, size, and the shape of warts in perianal region, (2) physical signs of sexual abuse, (3) warts in other body areas, and (4) signs of other sexually transmitted diseases. Results: The age of boys ranged from 4 to 10 years, with a mean ± standard deviation of 6.4 ± 1.9 years. Fourteen boys (87.5%) presented with multiple moist papules. Eleven boys (68.75%) had a progressive course. Fourteen boys (87.5%) had no symptoms (incidentally discovered) and 2 boys (12.5%) had perianal itching and pain. Thirteen boys (81.25%) had confirmed history of sexual abuse. Fourteen boys (87.5%) had no physical signs of sexual abuse and 2 boys (12.5%) had perianal fissures. Conclusion: Our results suggested that sexual abuse should be considered in every case of boys with perianal warts.
  7,402 595 -
Giant adrenal myelolipoma: A rare case report and review of literature
Rajeev Sen, Sumiti Gupta, Padam Parmar, Komal Brar, Meenu Gilotra, Veena Gupta
April-June 2017, 4(2):60-62
Myelolipomas are a rare benign variant of adipose tissue tumors with additional hematopoietic elements. In general, these tumors were discovered accidentally on autopsy with a low incidence. Adrenal gland is the most common site for myelolipoma. We reported a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma (>18 cm) which presented with vague, nonspecific pain which is worth mentioning because of its rarity and huge size.
  7,123 547 -
Pregnancy-associated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: A case report and literature review
Yu Qiang Chen, Qin Xue, Nian Song Wang
April-June 2017, 4(2):63-66
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease of uncontrolled alternative pathway complement activation and pregnancy-associated aHUS (P-aHUS) is a more rare but life-threatening disorder. Besides gene screening, ADAMTS-13 detection and renal biopsy is helpful to establish diagnosis and prognosis assessment when kidney is involved. Combined liver-kidney transplant and eculizumab therapy has generally been the initial approach to this disease management besides therapeutic plasma exchange and plasma infusion. Though transplant and eculizumab therapy may be more effective than traditional therapy, it is much more expensive and not easily available. Herein we report a case of P-aHUS and our case indicates that plasma exchange and hemodialysis may be effective to P-aHUS for those not suitable/available for eculizumab treatment or transplant.
  6,944 540 -
Does graft kidney weight have any impact on renal allograft function?
Abdul Munnan Durrani, Mrinal Pahwa, Archna Rautela Pahwa, Shiv Chadha, Vipin Tyagi, Harsha Jauhari
April-June 2017, 4(2):47-50
Introduction: Success of renal transplantation, besides other factors, depends on the total number of nephrons in the transplanted kidney. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ratio of donor kidney weight (DKW) to recipient body weight (RBW) on renal allograft function. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study at our hospital on 245 patients who underwent live-related kidney transplant. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the ratio of DKW in grams to RBW in kilograms. Results: Mean age of the recipients was 40.19 ± 11.86 years (15–68 years) and donor was 46.18 ± 10.98 years (22–75 years). Male:female ratio for recipients and donors was 205:40 and 163:82, respectively. The decrease in mean creatinine level was more rapid in Group 3 patients as compared with Group 2 and Group 1 patients at 7 days and the trend continued till 3 years. Conclusion: The higher DKW/RBW ratio is an important factor for early function and late function of grafts. Extreme mismatch between the DKW and RBW should be kept in mind, and the DKW/RBW ratio can help us prognosticate patients' renal allograft function.
  5,750 491 -
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the kidney
Sunita Singh, Yashika Bhatia, Jyoti Sharma, Rajeev Sen
April-June 2017, 4(2):67-69
Primary renal malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare tumor indistinguishable from renal cell carcinoma clinically and radiologically which can be differentiated only by histological and immunohistochemical studies. We report a case of primary renal MFH in a 40-year-old female who presented with left flank pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography revealed a well-defined renal mass. The contralateral kidney and renal functions were normal. Preoperative diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma and nephrectomy was performed. Histological examination and immunohistochemistry revealed MFH.
  5,654 512 -